The Rutgers Digital Library Initiative calls upon us to acquire full-text electronic resources and develop the supporting services that will allow our users to access and receive them conveniently, cost effectively, and ubiquitously. We have articulated our budget needs for increased support for collections and building the catalog, and we have determined that supporting public service changes will come from existing resources. Because we are a unified system, development of services that support the digital library requires a combination of systemwide and cross-unit collaborations and reassignments with central coordination and support. Central support means the ability to purchase software and equipment and to call upon or provide appropriate personnel.
Extraordinary support is needed in six primary areas: electronic reserves, interlibrary delivery, desktop requesting and delivery, networked printing, instructional technology, and self-checkout. The proposed service initiatives are detailed below, while specific equipment needs and costs are explained in Attachments 1 and 2.
Electronic reserves are now up and running because of systemwide planning and implementation led by Judy Gardner, head, university libraries access and interlibrary services, in collaboration with Donna Cryan, manager, New Brunswick copy services, and reserve and copy services staff from all campuses. Many reserve photocopies for this fall semester are being provided in both traditional paper as well as networked digital modes. By combining expertise and sharing the costs for initial equipment and start up staffing, access and copy services staff have developed a centralized approach to electronic reserves that enabled us to begin the service with minimal equipment and staffing costs. Two high performance overhead scanners were acquired, one at Alexander Library, financed by central public services, and one at the Library of Science and Medicine, financed by the statewide services grant for interlibrary services from the New Jersey State Library. Reserve staff in all the libraries except the Library of Science and Medicine send materials to the Alexander Library copy center for scanning. Copy center staff use their scanning expertise to digitize the materials, and unit library and copy center staff share responsibility for creation of the links to the Unicorn reserve module course lists. The service is developing rapidly as we move through the busy fall semester, and it must be supported and enhanced on an ongoing basis.
Costs for this academic year in the copy center that we need to reimburse are a portion of an existing position recently reclassified to Library Assistant 3, student voucher assistance, problem solving and coordination by supervisors, supplies, and equipment maintenance. The Alexander copy center is maintaining a log for this fall reserve season from which we will be able to derive voucher and supply costs. The scanner in the Alexander copy center will also be used to provide users with digitized images from Special Collections materials requiring flatbed care and can be used as support for a variety of library digitization projects.
Scanning and processing for electronic reserves will eventually become a normal activity for the reserve staff in our larger libraries. To do this, we need to acquire additional overhead scanners and locate them strategically throughout the system. This equipment will also in some locations be used for interlibrary loan and the Rutgers Request Service.
Availability of scanning equipment and Ariel software at all Rutgers libraries will speed the delivery of articles from our collections to Rutgers students and faculty and to our interlibrary trading partners. Through the Rutgers Request Service (RRS), requests for articles from journals owned at Rutgers are currently requested online by our users and then sent to the user-specified pickup library by truck. The ability to scan and transmit articles using Ariel software would permit digital delivery among libraries or to individual users with Ariel software. Requests from our interlibrary trading partners are currently received at the Alexander, Dana, or Robeson Libraries and the Library of Science and Medicine and can be scanned and transmitted via Ariel from each of these locations, the Annex, and the Chang Science Library. Articles from journals located at other Rutgers libraries must be sent via truck to one of these locations for transmittal.
The access service committee is planning a phased approach to expanding use of Ariel for both RRS and interlibrary services. Phase I will speed delivery of RRS articles filled by the Annex, Chang, and the Library of Science and Medicine to users on the Camden and Newark campuses, speed the delivery of RRS articles filled by Dana and Robeson to users at libraries with Ariel software on all campuses, and increase the number of filled interlibrary loan articles scanned and sent directly to other institutions from the Library of Science and Medicine, thereby decreasing the number of paper copies made. Phase II will introduce use of Ariel for transmitting filled RRS items among New Brunswick libraries and will transfer transmission of filled interlibrary loan items from the interlibrary loan services office at Alexander Library to the copy center at Alexander Library. Preparation and training for phase I are underway, and the starting date for each phase is to be determined.
To complete a systemwide program for use of Ariel for RRS and interlibrary services will require that scanning equipment and Ariel software is broadly available. Equipment will in some libraries also be used for electronic reserves and other digitization services.
We anticipate an increase in interlibrary lending activity as the state makes its new resource sharing system (RSS) available and as the two-year backlog of our tapeloads begins appearing in RLIN and OCLC. As interlibrary services staff begin to work in these areas as well as digital desktop delivery to Rutgers requesters on the borrowing side using our scanner and Prospero software, there will be need to implement greater efficiencies in the work flow. The RLG ILL Manager software will become available in the spring 2000, and we believe it will provide substantial opportunities for workflow improvements. The ILL Manager is a standalone product that will let our staff manage requests for Rutgers borrowers on any and all systems with which we interact: RLIN, OCLC, RSS, etc. The projected cost for ILL Manager software is $5,000 per site with a $500 annual fee, though RLG has not yet determined how they will charge multiple site institutions like Rutgers. We anticipate a discount as a SHARES member, but we may have to acquire ILL Manager for each campus, and potentially for each workstation where we need it installed. I recommend that we budget for $12-15,000 for the ILL Manager software.
When libraries throughout New Jersey are broadly using the new statewide Z39.50 resource sharing system for interlibrary loan, we will no longer receive the $10,000 annual grant from the New Jersey State Library for loading our bibliographic records into the OCLC national database. Since we have several important interlibrary loan partners on OCLC, it would be detrimental to our ability to acquire loans for Rutgers students and faculty if we did not load our records into OCLC and maintain those reciprocal partnerships.
Interlibrary services staff are testing Prospero software that will place digital files received using Ariel on private user web pages. Users can then view the materials online or print them without coming to the library. The ultimate use of this software, in conjunction with our scanners and copy services and local library RRS staff, will be to replace Locate and Copy and RRS with a unified service in which users will receive all photocopy requests at their desktop. Instead of coming to a library to pick up photocopies or waiting for mail delivery, articles will be scanned and placed in a personal mailbox for individual reading and printing. An additional portion of the Library Assistant 3 position in copy services will be used to support to these tasks. The support needed this year is technical support from systems and additional scanners and Ariel software.
Library users currently expect to be able to photocopy our paper resources. Increasingly, they also expect to be able to make hard copies from our growing collection of electronic full-text reference, journal, and reserve resources. No one is currently able to initiate printing with cost recovery from any workstation provided by the Libraries except in a limited way at the Alexander, Chang, and Robeson Libraries. At LSM, Douglass, Kilmer, and Robeson students may print using workstations in labs in the Libraries provided by university computing. A similar arrangement provides a small lab for graduate students at Alexander Library. Faculty and staff may use these RUCS student labs in the libraries if space permits, but they are off-limits to members of the public, including alumni, Friends, and other guests. At Dana, library workstations are run collaboratively with campus computing, and printing has so far been provided without charge to everyone. As university computing in Newark implements additional security measures, it is anticipated that printing will be available only to members of the Rutgers community.
The lack of networked printing in each of our libraries is disruptive to scholarly processes. Users must download or email search results and fulltext, move to a lab or leave the library to print their findings, and then return to the library to pursue print items referenced in their search results or to get assistance for the next steps. By forcing our users to finish the process outside our reference areas, we are removing the librarian from the loop at this critical transition time for our profession and our users. Concern about the lack of networked printing is a barrier to use and acceptance of the new electronic reserve service. This means that the libraries are providing equipment at a level lower than undergraduate labs. This situation is a growing concern of collection development librarians as additional full-text files are acquired. The libraries should be providing the best equipment possible, especially since many faculty still have limited access to good equipment and connections.
RFP for Printer/Server Solutions
Over the past year, a systemwide group of librarians, library staff, and library administrators developed systemwide requirements for networked public printing. Members were Ka-Neng Au, Jeanne Boyle (chair), Donna Cryan, Gary Golden, Ann Montanaro, Francoise Puniello, and Samson Soong. Working with university procurement and contracting, the task force issued an RFP for either printer/server software or outsourcing solutions, evaluated responses, and arranged for demonstrations from finalists. When it became apparent that substantial new funding would be required for a common systemwide solution, the Request for Proposal was withdrawn. Costs to implement the products from the two bidders whose technology would work in our environment cost $95,860 and $113,030.
We subsequently learned that brand new digital printer/photocopier equipment that can be networked is becoming available from standard photocopier companies. Printer/photocopiers allow users to send print jobs from workstations to a networked printer/photocopier and use their Copicard to release their jobs and make their copies at the same cost as regular photocopying. This solution satisfies systems staff concerns that all print software and job queues reside in the printer/photocopier rather than on our building servers. It also will eliminate librarian concern about having printers they must manage in the reference areas and the perceived need for additional staff to handle paper jams and other difficulties. Most importantly, a printer/photocopier solution will integrate networked printing into existing photocopy operations, including equipment acquisition, service, and supplies, and will rely on current photocopy staffing resources and routines. Printer/photocopiers can be purchased from $8,700 to $34,000 each or be leased under other terms.
During September and October, we visited MCS Canon, Oce, and Toshiba showrooms for demonstrations of networkable printer/photocopier equipment. We had previously been to demonstrations for Xerox, Minolta, and Kodak equipment. All equipment was comparable in terms of overall functionality, including reliability, security, and user interface, and impact on our technological infrastructure. Toshiba is our first choice for the following reasons: it is the only model that allows users to name their print jobs and protect them with a unique personal password. It has a small footprint, is extremely quiet even when copying or printing, and has a very good purchase price. Oce offers a higher capacity machine that may be appropriate for us in some circumstances, but it comes with a very high price tag and does not allow use of a unique personal password. Canon also does not allow a personal password. Xerox would require a personal computer in addition to the printer/photocopier.
SROA funds are available for a pilot project for networked printing in the Alexander Library. Using the information gained during the RFP process and printer/photocopier review, it is recommended that the funds be used to purchase two printer/photocopiers for the Alexander Library. One printer/photocopier would be placed in the reference photocopy area and the other in the Copy Center. Drivers for both machines will be installed on every public workstation in Alexander, and users wishing to print will be able to select the printer/photocopier most convenient to them. Pending a positive outcome of testing currently underway with a Copicard unit and approval from the Libraries' Systems Department, the model recommended for this pilot is the Toshiba DP3580.
Systemwide Networked Printing
For the library system overall, we recommend development of a flexible, integrated, and multi-modal approach that depends primarily on printer/photocopier technology. Copy Services is currently working with university Procurement and Contracting to develop an RFP for selection of a photocopy vendor for the Newark and New Brunswick libraries, and printer/photocopier equipment will be included. Printer/photocopiers will be strategically located in the Dana Library and in all New Brunswick libraries where the Libraries provide equipment. Delivery of new equipment is expected by January 1, 2000.
Three New Brunswick libraries will need a different approach. Photocopy equipment in the Chemistry, Physics, and Alcohol Studies Libraries is owned by the related hosting departments. Each department could be offered the option of replacing an existing photocopier with a printer/photocopier once our price is established during the bid process. Alternatively, a separate public workstation with its own printer and card reader could be provided. Copicard, however, cannot work in this configuration. Implementation of such a solution in these libraries will depend upon an upgrade and upgrade or change to the debit card system. The upgrade or change will be completed by September 2000.
The Robeson Library has its own arrangement for copy services with an outside vendor. The current arrangement for standalone printing from two public workstations is suitable for current needs. We should offer the vendor the opportunity to purchase a printer/photocopier once our price is established during the bid process.
Although instruction is our most important public service growth area for librarians, instructional technology is the area in public services that has not yet contributed to the Rutgers Digital Library Initiative. The public services council and the instructional services committee have identified activities in this area in their work plans for academic year 1999/2000. Proposals will undoubtedly come forward for consideration for support for the next academic year. Currently, the instructional services committee has requested funding for training for using technology in teaching, both for bringing experts to campus and sending individuals to seminars, laptops for librarians to take to smart classrooms and off-campus locations, and instructional technology software. They are also anxious to have the position of off-campus instruction coordinator created and filled and recommend that all academic position profiles include responsibility for instruction.
Last year, we acquired a site license for Reveal at a cost of $4,430 for 430 or more users. This was funded by $2,430 from public services and $2,000 remaining in accounts from the document delivery pilot project funded from the collection budget. To date, 206 users have established profiles. The site license became due for renewal in October, and I have renewed it for a maximum of 300 subscribers at $3,700/year. Reveal will be further publicized during the fall semester with the goal of increasing the number of users. The central public services budget was not increased to provide for this service, and at least an additional $1,270 is need to cover the increase over last year's expenditure.
Document Delivery Startup
Our new collection development strategy calls for implementation of a document delivery service, or combination of services, that will allow our users to request articles directly. There will be startup costs for such a service if we need to provide tapes or other technical support or if there are gateway or other initiation fees. As an example, the startup costs for using UnCover for document delivery was projected last fall at $19,000.
Self-checkout stations would enable our users to charge out their library books themselves and reduce wait times in library locations with high circulation traffic. They would also relieve the work of staff assigned to circulation desk duty, freeing them for other tasks. Karen Oster, our new Sirsi systems administrator, has had successful experience with self-checkout stations at Carnegie Mellon University. The time is right for us to begin using this equipment at Rutgers. Eight stations are requested for our initial installation.