Encyclopedias: History

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See also: Biography and Dictionaries

Consult the Research Guides for pointers and detailed information on researching your topic.

American Economy: a Historical Encyclopedia [Rutgers Restricted]
"Provides detailed information about the formation and development of economic policy throughout American history and describes its continued importance" including its influence on "social, cultural, political, and economic events from colonial times to the present." Electronic version of the revised edition.

American Eras [Rutgers Restricted]
An electronic version of the 8 volume resource which "includes essays on events, publications, lifestyles and individuals important to particular eras in U.S. history."

American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia [Rutgers Restricted]
More than 250 entries on developments in the growing field of men’s studies including topics such as: arts, literature, and popular culture; body, health, and sexuality; class, ethnic, racial, and religious identities; concepts and theories; family and fatherhood; general history; icons and symbols; leisure and work; movements and organizations; people; and political and social issues.

Ancient Europe - 8000 BC to 1000 AD: An Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World [Rutgers Restricted]
"Explores the many peoples of early European civilizations responsible for such accomplishments as the rise of farming in the Neolithic era and the building of Stonehenge. Coverage expands from prehistoric origins through the early Middle Ages (8000 BC to AD 1000) when tribal movements helped define the end of ancient culture and the rise of the modern European world." An electronic version of the 2 volume print resource.

Ancient History Encyclopedia
Provides information on "an array of historical topics and narratives through text, video, interactive features, social media and mobile apps."

Includes an online encyclopedia of hundreds of famous and lesser known figures in African America, full text primary documents and major speeches of black activists and leaders from the 18th Century to the present, plus other features.

Brill's New Pauly Online [Rutgers Restricted]
An encyclopaedia of the ancient world for everyday use. It also covers interest in Antiquity (the Classical Tradition) in all periods of European and, since the Early Modern period, world history.

Brill’s Encyclopedia of China Online [Rutgers Restricted]
Focuses "on the modern period from the mid-nineteenth century to the 21st century," and includes information on the history, geography, society, economy, politics, science, and culture of China.

Class in America: An Encyclopedia [Rutgers Restricted]
Looks "at class from a variety of traditional perspectives: economic, historical, and sociological." "The 525 signed entries each end with a Suggested Reading section, for those interested in further research. A Bibliographical Essay can be found at the end of Volume 3."

Colonialism: an International, Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia [Rutgers Restricted]
"This encyclopedia specifically sets out to treat cultural concepts and intellectual ideas as crucial to an understanding of colonialism in the modern world." Many entries "deal with the geographic dimensions of colonialism, including the places that came to be dominated by foreign societies as well as the national expressions of colonialism by various primarily (but not exclusively) European empires."

Concise Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History [Rutgers Restricted]
An abridged version of The Princeton Encyclopedia of American Political History. "Provides comprehensive coverage of both the traditional topics of U.S. political history and the broader forces that shape American politics--including economics, religion, social movements, race, class, and gender."

Contemporary Fashion [Rutgers Restricted]
"A reference book covering individual designers and fashion houses that have been active throughout the 20th and 21st centuries." 2nd edition. A freely accessible version is also available.

Dictionary of the History of Ideas
Covers "a varied array of selected pivotal topics in intellectual history and of methods of writing about such topics" and "recounts the historical development of such ideas across a range of disciplines, including philosophy, religion, politics, literature, and the biological, physical, and social sciences."

Dictionary of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict [Rutgers Restricted]
"Covers the history of the conflict, going back to the birth of Zionism at the end of the 19th century. The two-volume set covers five Arab-Israeli wars, and provides biographies of political personnel in Syria, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan and the occupied territories. "

EH.Net Encyclopedia of Economic and Business History
Provides reference articles written by experts in the field. Search, or browse by keyword.

Enciclopedia de Puerto Rico
Covers categories such as arts, economy, government, history, municipalities, popular culture, and more with essays and articles by academics, researchers, and subject matter experts. Available in Spanish or English.

Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History [Rutgers Restricted]
"A five-volume set and supplement covering all aspects of the African-American experience from 1619 to the present day. Using biographies, historical essays, and thematic pieces, many written by foremost scholars, it addresses a wide array of subjects in over 2,300 articles to define in one source the cultural roots, participation in American life, and current condition of the African-American community." 2nd edition.

Encyclopedia of African American Education [Rutgers Restricted]
"The encyclopedia follows the struggle of African Americans to achieve equality in education—beginning among an enslaved population and evolving into the present."

Encyclopedia of African American History [Rutgers Restricted]
Covers the "totality of the African American experience, from beginnings in precolonial Atlantic Africa through the dawn of the 21st century."

Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture [Rutgers Restricted]
"Features more than six hundred entries on entertainment, history, sports, art, writing and publications, food, business, organizations, and more."

Encyclopedia of African Colonial Conflicts [Rutgers Restricted]
"This encyclopedia introduces the history of colonial wars in Africa and illustrates why African countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Somalia, and Sudan continue to experience ethnic, political, and religious violence in the early 21st century."

Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy [Rutgers Restricted]

Electronic version of the 3 volume resource containing "essays by subject experts on concepts and doctrines, policymaking, commerce and science, human rights and arms control, with specific articles on topics ranging from anti-imperialism to environmental diplomacy, from refugee policies to terrorism and countermeasures. Also includes a chronology." A freely accessible version is also available.

Encyclopedia of American Immigration [Rutgers Restricted]
"Covers the full depth and breadth of American immigration history--from the arrival of the early ancestors of Native Americans more than ten millennia ago to a broad range of twenty-first century immigration issues." Addresses the diverse demographic, economic, legal, political, and social aspects of immigration.

Encyclopedia of American Journalism [Rutgers Restricted]
Covers all aspects of the history of journalism in the United States, including print media, radio, television, and the Internet. Electronic version of the print encyclopedia.

Encyclopedia of American Urban History [Rutgers Restricted]
Provides "both a summary and an interpretation of the field. With contributions from leading academics in their fields, this authoritative resource offers an interdisciplinary approach by covering topics from economics, geography, anthropology, politics,

Encyclopedia of Black Studies [Rutgers Restricted]
"Contains a full analysis of the economic, political, sociological, historical, literary, and philosophical issues related to Americans of African descent. Includes key themes such as: afrocentricity, anti-racism, arts, associations and organizations, campus politics, civil rights, classical africa, culture, departmental histories, institutions, intellectual schools, legal issues, movements, political issues, racism, religion, reparations, and resistance."

Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society [Rutgers Restricted]
"Presents the social and cultural history of childhood from antiquity to the present. Children and Childhood examines this history through articles on education, parenting, child labor, economics, images of childhood, children's literature, play, toys and and games, health, physiology, law, the criminal justice system and social welfare. Comparative articles include information about childhood in cultures throughout the world." Electronic version of the 3 volume print resource.

Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion [Rutgers Restricted]
"A three volume survey of clothing, costume and fashion, presented through 640 essays, arranged alphabetically. Coverage includes the origins of clothing and body adornment, the development of fabrics and technologies, and the social meanings of dress, as well as representative costumes from a wide range of historical eras."

Encyclopedia of Disaster Relief [Rutgers Restricted]
"This encyclopedia covers response to disasters around the world, from governments to NGOs, from charities to politics, from refugees to health, and from economics to international relations, covering issues in both historical and contemporary context. The volumes include information relevant to students of sociology, national security, economics, health sciences, political science, emergency preparedness, history, agriculture, and many other subjects."

Encyclopedia of Drug Policy [Rutgers Restricted]
"Explores the controversial drug war through the lens of varied disciplines. A full spectrum of articles explains topics from Colombian cartels and Mexican kingpins to television reportage; from just say no" advertising to heroin production; and from narco-terrorism to more than $500 billion in U.S. government expenditures."

Encyclopedia of Educational Reform and Dissent [Rutgers Restricted]
"Opens with a historical overview of educational reform and dissent and a timeline of key reforms, legislation, publications, and more. Examines the reform or dissent related to education found in theories, concepts, ideas, writings, research, and practice. Addresses how reformers and dissenters become significant culture-shaping people and change the way we conduct our lives."

Encyclopedia of Espionage - Intelligence and Security [Rutgers Restricted]
"Provides a comprehensive, subject specific guide to the history, uses, scientific principles, and technologies of espionage, intelligence, and security, with special emphasis placed on the current ethical, legal, and social issues." A freely accessible version of this 3 volume set is also available.

Encyclopedia of European Social History [Rutgers Restricted]
"This six-volume reference on European social history includes more than 230 articles on everything from serfdom and the economy, to witchcraft and public health."

Encyclopedia of Food and Culture [Rutgers Restricted]
"Presents 600 articles on food and its place in human culture and society, covering everything from agronomy to zucchini. Students, academics, and general researchers will find entries on everything from food preparation, distribution and storage to holidays and festivals, nutrition and health, and cultures and cuisines." Electronic version of the 3 volume print resource.

Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity [Rutgers Restricted]
"Spans the globe to explain the issues behind crimes against humanity and human rights issues as they relate to individual countries and the world at large. It traces the history of events that qualify as genocide and crimes against humanity, profiles perpetrators and heroes, and explains international laws and law proceedings aimed at ending genocide and crimes against humanity. It also delves into depictions and manifestations of the phenomenon, such as propaganda, sociological and philosophical explanations, literature and film." Electronic version of the 3 volume print resource.

Encyclopedia of Immigration and Migration in the American West [Rutgers Restricted]
Examines the settlement of the American West including "coverage of movements of American Indians, African Americans, and the often-forgotten role of women in the West’s development." Electronic version of the 2 volume print resource.

Encyclopedia of Irish History and Culture [Rutgers Restricted]
Spans prehistoric times to the present, and treats both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland in detail. Entries represent an inclusive, cross-disciplinary approach, written by specialists in history, archaeology, anthropology, geography, politics, economics, the Irish and English languages and literatures, the visual arts and other fields. Electronic version of the 2 volume print resource.

Encyclopedia of Islam [Rutgers Restricted]
"Includes articles on Muslims of every age and land, on tribes and dynasties, on the crafts and sciences, on political and religious institutions, on the geography, ethnography of the various countries and on the history, topography and monuments of the major towns and cities. Its scope encompasses the old Arabo-Islamic empire, the Islamic countries of Iran, Central Asia, the Indian sub-continent and Indonesia, the Ottoman Empire and all other Islamic countries." New edition.

Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World [Rutgers Restricted]
"Provides a compendium of some 2,100 articles across a diverse range of disciplines including, but not limited to, history, anthropology, ethnography, folklore, law and jurisprudence, linguistics, sociology, politics, philosophy, religious studies, women's studies, art history, literature, film studies, material culture, and biographies of notable persons. The time frame of the contents is from the advent of Islam and the initial Muslim-Jewish encounter in the seventh century to the present (2010)."

Encyclopedia of Lesbian - Gay - Bisexual and Transgender History in America [Rutgers Restricted]
Provides a comprehensive survey of lesbian and gay history and culture in the United States. Includes approximately 545 articles ranging from short biographical entries to longer essays surveying topics such as the Stonewall riots, federal law and policy, same sex institutions, and AIDS. Electronic version of the 3 volume print resource.

Encyclopedia of Modern Asia [Rutgers Restricted]
"Historical articles emphasize people, places, events, and developments that have had a lasting influence on Asia. Articles also cover Asian relations with Western nations, the relations between nations within Asia, and also the flow of people, goods, and ideas within Asia and globally. Electronic version of the 6 volume print resource."

Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire [Rutgers Restricted]
A five volume survey of European history from the onset of the French Revolution to the outbreak of World War. Alphabetically arranged entries cover the period's most significant personalities and meaningful developments in the arts, religion, politics, exploration, and warfare.

Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction [Rutgers Restricted]
A multi-volume survey of European history from the beginning of World War I in 1914 to the present, presented through alphabetically arranged entries that focus on the period's scientific, social and cultural history as well as the political, military and economic developments.

Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Society [Rutgers Restricted]
"Offers accessible descriptions of some of the key technical achievements of nanoscience along with its history and prospects. Rather than a technical primer, this encyclopedia instead focuses on the efforts of governments around the world to fund nanoscience research and to tap its potential for economic development as well as to assess how best to regulate a new technology for the environmental, occupational, and consumer health and safety issues related to the field."

Encyclopedia of New Jersey [Rutgers Restricted]
Signed articles of varying lengths on people, places, events, and other topics relevant to New Jersey history.

Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607-1890 [Rutgers Restricted]
Provides a broad, in-depth, and multidisciplinary look at the causes and effects of warfare between whites and Native Americans, encompassing nearly three centuries of history.quot;

Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology [Rutgers Restricted]
Covers recent and historical phenomena, topics, concepts, cults, personalities, organizations, and publications associated with the fields of occultism and parapsychology. Includes over 2,000 biographies of prominent individuals and personalities in these fields; country entries on the development of occultism and parapsychology; and pro and con narrative on some of the controversial topics. An electronic version of the 2 volume 5th edition.

Encyclopedia of Play in Today's Society [Rutgers Restricted]
"Explores the concept of play in history and modern society in the United States and internationally. As an academic social history, it includes the perspectives of several curricular disciplines, from sociology to child psychology, from lifestyle history to social epidemiology."

Encyclopedia of Race and Crime [Rutgers Restricted]
"A comprehensive compilation of relevant facts and information on topics related to race and crime and the crime and justice experiences of racial/ethnic groups in the United States."

Encyclopedia of Russian History [Rutgers Restricted]
Providing a comprehensive discussion of the people, politics, economics, religion, culture, and social systems of Russia, this work spans the time from the earliest beginnings of the Russian nation (among the ancient Eastern Slavic tribes) to the end of czarist Russia and on through the rise and fall of the Soviet Union. An electronic version of the 4 volume resource.

Encyclopedia of Science and Religion [Rutgers Restricted]
Addresses the interactions, contradictions, and tensions between science and religion, both historically and in contemporary life. The set examines technologies like in vitro fertilization, cloning, and continuing developments in neurophysiology against the backdrop of deeply-held religious beliefs. In addition, phenomena such as the Church of Scientology are also studied, along with more traditional issues, such as the origins of life, the nature of sin, and the philosophy of science and religion. An electronic version of the 2 volume resource.

Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements
"Covers a broad range of historical and modern topics to create an understanding of many of the most significant social and political developments and changes throughout much of human history, from the French revolution, to the global women's movement, to Martin Luther King Jr. and the American civil rights movement, through to more recent issues including environmentalism and the Arab Spring."

Encyclopedia of Social Welfare History in North America [Rutgers Restricted]
Provides readers with basic information about the history of social welfare in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Coverage is broad and interdisciplinary "including the fields of anthropology, health sciences, history, political science, social work, and sociology."

Encyclopedia of the Great Depression [Rutgers Restricted]
An electronic version of the 2 volume resource providing "entries on Depression-era politics, government, business, economics, literature, the arts, society, and culture."

Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa [Rutgers Restricted]
"Covers the modern history of the Middle East and North Africa, with major sections on Colonialism and Imperialism, the World Wars, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the United Nations' involvement in the region. Each country in the region is reviewed, detailing its population, economy, and government. Electronic version of the 4 volume 2nd edition of the print resource."

Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: a Political, Social, and Military History [Rutgers Restricted]
Articles of varying lengths on all aspects of the Vietnam war, with a chronology, document texts, and related information. Each article includes a list of references and linked cross-references to related topics.

Encyclopedia of United States National Security [Rutgers Restricted]
In addition to presenting historical facts and analyses of weapons systems, treaties, and international conflicts, it is designed to also provide a comprehensive introduction to some of the more complicated and abstract questions concerning world politics and national security.

Encyclopedia of Urban Studies [Rutgers Restricted]
"Includes important work and traditions from each of the urban disciplines, including urban anthropology, urban economics, urban geography, urban history, urban politics, urban psychology, and urban sociology."

Encyclopedia of War & American Society [Rutgers Restricted]
The three volumes cover a wide range of general thematic categories, issues, and topics that address not only the geopolitical effects of war, but also show how the U.S. engagement in national and international conflicts has affected the social and cultural arena. Key themes include: arts and culture; civil-military relations; economy and labor; education (both military and civilian); environment and health; journalism and media; law and justice; military leaders and figures; planning, command and control; race, gender, and ethnicity; religion; science and technology;veterans' issues and experiences; and the wars themselves and their civilian and military leaders.

Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism Since 1450 [Rutgers Restricted]
A "comprehensive resource on the subject of colonialism and expansion. From a global perspective, the set traces many facets of colonial growth and imperialism, and much more." Electronic version of the 3 volume print resource.

Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures [Rutgers Restricted]
"An interdisciplinary, trans-historical, and global project embracing women and Islamic cultures in every region where there have been significant Muslim populations. It aims to cover every topic for which there is significant research, examining these regions from the period just before the rise of Islam to the present." Online version of the print encyclopedia.

Encyclopedia of Women in the American West [Rutgers Restricted]
Captures the lives of more than 150 women who made their mark from the mid-1800s to the present, contextualizing their experiences and contributions to American society. The encyclopedia "covers nine diverse topical categories: agriculture/ranching, arts and letters, education, entrepreneurs, law, pioneers, public performance, religion, and women's organizations."

Encyclopedia of Women Social Reformers [Rutgers Restricted]
Articles on women reformers from the French Revolution to the second wave of feminism in the 1970s, with a few important contemporary figures.

Essential Primary Sources [Rutgers Restricted]

A focus on leading social issues of the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. Each title contains approximately 175 full or excerpted documents---speeches, legislation, magazine and newspaper articles, essays, memoirs, letters, interviews, novels, songs, and works of art---as well as overview information that places each document in context.

Europe - 1450 to 1789: An Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World [Rutgers Restricted]
Explores European history from 1450-1789, from the print revolution to the French Revolution. Includes 1,150 articles written by eminent scholars covering major topics in art, government, and education as well as providing biographical entries on key figures of the period. Also covers topics specific to the era, such as apocalypticism, guilds, food riots, royal mistresses and lovers, the Spanish Inquisition, Utopia and others. Electronic version of the 6 volume print resource.

Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages [Rutgers Restricted]
Electronic version of the 5 volume print resource providing "a broad overview of costume traditions of diverse cultures from prehistoric times to the present day. Examines more than 430 items of human decoration and adornment, ranging from togas to turban

Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History [Rutgers Restricted]
Designed to answer such key questions as: How has the U.S. Constitution shaped the economy of the United States? What were the consequences of Prohibition on consumers' behavior? This title presents 1,000 entries, era overviews, event/movement profiles, biographies, business/industry profiled, geographic profiles, and more. Electronic version of the 2 volume print resource.

Government, Politics, and Protest: Essential Primary Sources [Rutgers Restricted]
Covers the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries with "full or excerpted documents---speeches, legislation, magazine and newspaper articles, essays, memoirs, letters, interviews, novels, songs, and works of art---as well as overview information that places each document in context."

Historical Encyclopedia of Natural and Mathematical Sciences [Rutgers Restricted]
"Blends the essential historical data (chronology, biographies, major background political and economical events, etc.) together with science proper (principles, laws, experiments, observations, theories, equations, etc.)."

Holocaust Encyclopedia
Includes hundreds of articles on every aspect of the Holocaust with links between entries, timelines, photographs, and primary documents.

Human and Civil Rights: Essential Primary Sources [Rutgers Restricted]
Covers the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries with "full or excerpted documents---speeches, legislation, magazine and newspaper articles, essays, memoirs, letters, interviews, novels, songs, and works of art---as well as overview information that places each document in context."

Influenza Encyclopedia: The American Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1919: A Digital Encyclopedia
Covers "the places, the people, and the organizations that battled the American influenza epidemic of 1918-1919."

Jewish Women's Archive: Encyclopedia
"Embraces the whole Jewish world and all of Jewish culture from the Hebrew Bible to the present. Includes the text from the original CD-ROM resource plus some images. Articles will be added and updated over time."

New Encyclopedia of Africa [Rutgers Restricted]
"Addresses the entire history of African cultures from the pharaohs and the ancient civilizations of the south through the colonial era to the emergence of 53 independent countries, some of them newly emergent in world commerce and others deep in conflict. Covers issues facing the continent such as global development, the AIDS crisis, and international terrorism. Electronic version of the 5 volume 2nd edition of the print resource."

9/11 Encyclopedia [Rutgers Restricted]
Aims to "present to the reader a comprehensive look at all aspects of September 11" including coverage of the people, events, timeline, aftermath, and even the various conspiracy theories. Some primary documents are also included.

Poverty in America: An Encyclopedia [Rutgers Restricted]
"Covers the entire history of American poverty from all angles--historical, social, cultural, political, spiritual, and literary."

Race Relations in the United States [Rutgers Restricted]
"Covers the key events, influential voices, race relations by group, legislation, media influences, cultural output, and theories of inter-group interactions."

St. James Encyclopedia of Labor History Worldwide: Major Events in Labor History and Their Impact [Rutgers Restricted]
Provides in-depth analysis of more than 300 key events in labor history over the last 200 years, focusing on the relevance of these events to both the labor movement as a whole and to societal changes around the world. Electronic version of the 2 volume print resource.

St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture [Rutgers Restricted]
Includes more than 2,700 signed essays ranging from 500 to 2,500 words... Entries include subject-specific bibliographies and, where appropriate, photographs and textual cross-references to related essays. Electronic version of the 5 volume print resource.

UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology
Covers "a broad range of topics on ancient Egypt for scholars across multiple disciplines, students of Egyptology, History and related fields, and at the same time meeting the enormous popular interest in ancient Egypt."

Working Americans, 1880-2007 (Volume VIII: Immigrants) [Rutgers Restricted]
Examines the lives of first- and second-generation immigrants with a focus on their journey to America, their search for identity and the emotions they experienced in a new land. Electronic version of the print resource.

YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe
"Provides the most complete picture of the history and culture of Jews in Eastern Europe from the beginnings of their settlement in the region to the present." Includes separate links for maps, images, and primary documents.