Bibliography on Alternatives to Animal Testing

Unrestricted Access

Alternate title



ALTBIB is a free portal to PubMed/MEDLINE citations on alternatives to the use of live vertebrates in biomedical research and testing. It includes citations from published articles, books, book chapters, and technical reports. It also provides links to news sources and additional resources on alternatives to animal testing.

A wide variety of topics are covered, including biologics and vaccines, carcinogenesis, cytotoxicity, ecotoxicity, genotoxicity, hepatic/renal toxicity, immunotoxicity/immunology, neurotoxicity, ocular toxicity, pharmacokinetic/mechanistic studies, pyrogenicity, pulmonary toxicity, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR), reproductive and developmental toxicity, skin toxicity, and animal welfare.



For help using these indexes see: How do I find an article on my topic?

Dates covered

Mid-20th century – present.

Type of coverage

Citations with indexing and abstracts; some links to full-text content.

Vendor/electronic presentation provider

National Library of Medicine